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San Giulio I Papa – 12 aprile

San Giulio I Papa

12 aprile

Un papa contro l’arianesimo, che difende l’ unità della fede.

m. 352

(Papa dal 06/02/337 al 12/04/352)

Combatte con ogni mezzo l’arianesimo, convocando diversi concili, che riconfermarono – contro le tesi ariane di alcuni vescovi – la dottrina trinitaria.

È un diacono romano, eletto dopo il breve pontificato di papa Marco (10 mesi) e due mesi prima della morte di Costantino, l’imperatore che ha dato libertà ai cristiani. Gli tocca affrontare una gravissima crisi nella Chiesa, peggiorata dalle ingerenze del potere imperiale,rappresentato da tre figli ed eredi di Costantino: Costantino II, che lotta contro il fratello Costante, e viene ucciso in un’imboscata; poi Costante,che regna sull’Occidente e muore durante una rivolta militare; e infine Costanzo II, dal 353 padrone unico d’Oriente e Occidente.

La crisi nella Chiesa è provocata dal prete Ario di Alessandriad’Egitto (morto nel 336), che nega la divinità di Cristo. Questa dottrina è condannata nel 325 nel Concilio di Nicea, per impulso di sant’Atanasio, vescovo di Alessandria.Ma gli ariani d’Egitto, appoggiati dalla corte di Costanzo II, espellono Atanasiodalla sede episcopale. Lo accoglie papa Giulio a Roma, dove nel 341 riunisce un sinodo, ascoltando accusa e difesa attraverso testi e documenti, e riconoscendole buone ragioni sue e l’errore degli avversari. Ma il conflitto, anziché chiudersi, si inasprisce. E a quel punto Giulio convoca per l’anno 343 un Concilio ecumenico a Sardica (attuale Sofia,in Bulgaria) per ascoltare tutti i vescovi dell’una e dell’altra parte. Sceglie Sardica perché si trova al confine tra gli Imperi d’Oriente e d’Occidente: una sedeneutrale. Arrivano con Atanasio di Alessandriaanche altri vescovi spodestati dagli ariani; ne arrivano dall’Occidentee dall’Oriente. Ma gli “orientali”se ne vanno quasi subito, prima che inizino i lavori. Altri non si sono mossi dalle loro sedi.

E così il Concilio non è più ecumenico, universale. Si trasforma in un’assemblea sempre autorevole, ma che riunisce solo pastori occidentali. Resta però importante, soprattutto per alcune sue decisioni sui doveri dei vescovi: proibisce loro di passare da una diocesi all’altra; autorizza le assenze dalla diocesi, ma per non più di tre settimane. E poi sconsiglia vivamente i vescovi dal bazzicare gli ambienti di corte.

E questo è il punto. Le vicende dell’Impero (ora unito, ora diviso tra questo e quel figlio di Costantino) influiscono pesantemente sulla vita religiosa. Costante sta con i cattolici;  suo fratello Costanzo resta neutrale finché regna solo sull’Oriente; poi diventa filo-ariano quando regna anche sull’Occidente.

Papa Giulio I non ha vinto, insomma. Il contrasto è tutt’altro che chiuso. Anzi,si aggraverà ancora. Ma lui intanto ha difeso l’unità nella fede con serena autorevolezza, chiarendo limpidamente il principio dell’autorità pontificia inmateria di fede.

Etimologia: Giulio = appartenente alla ‘gens Julia’, illustre famiglia romana, dal latino

A Roma nel cimitero di Calepodio al terzo miglio della via Aurelia, deposizione di san Giulio I, papa, che, durante la persecuzione ariana, custodì tenacemente la fede nicena, difese Atanasio dalle accuse ospitandolo durante l’esilio e convocò il Concilio di Sardica.

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